Bupropion, a DA and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, showed no benefit over placebo Black et al. Further studies are needed to better understand the action of amantadine on neural systems involved in PG.
Pathological Gambling has been presumed to be modulated mainly by brain DA and Glu, though findings are contrasting. In pathological gamblers, multiple investigations have observed alterations in frontal regions and in the ventral striatum nucleus accumbensa brain region with dopaminergic innervation widely implicated in reward processing Everitt and Robbins, Discussion To our knowledge, this is the first case report examining the efficacy of amantadine in treating PG patients, without comorbid PD.
Clinical Case Study ARTICLE
The study consisted of 10 weeks of open-label amantadine. The imbalance in Glu homeostasis engenders changes in neuroplasticity that impair communication between the prefrontal cortex and the nucleus accumbens, thus favoring engagement in reward-seeking behaviors, such as PG Kalivas and Volkow, The role of the dopaminergic system, and its interaction with the glutamatergic system, is also explored.
To date, there is no FDA-approved treatment for PG, despite almost a decade of intense research, and effective treatment strategies remain very challenging. Further studies are required to define the true benefits of amantadine for the treatment of PG.
Amantadine may act as a regulator of the complex interactions between the glutamatergic and dopaminergic systems, acting simultaneously on both systems, in ways that need to be better explored. The adverse effects of amantadine are generally mild. Amantadine also has additional actions on dopaminergic neurotransmission; it increases DA release, has direct effects on DA receptors, and inhibits DA reuptake Stromberg et al.
Intriguing hypotheses can be formulated in light of the recent discovery of the existence of a co-release of Glu and DA in reward-related areas. This paper details a case report suggesting that the treatment of PG may benefit from the use of the non-specific glutamate blocker amantadine.
Session three focused on coping with gambling urges and changing irrational thinking. Participants were instructed to listen to the tape three times each day reported mean 2.
Alterations in dopaminergic pathways may underlie the seeking of rewards i. Case Presentation The present case concerned a year-old married male, unemployed, previously diagnosed with PG about 10 years ago.
This study is registered at www. Abstinence was achieved by There is substantial evidence indicating that pharmacological treatments targeting glutamatergic transmission are of potential utility in the treatment of drug addiction.
The patient did not receive psychological or pharmacological treatments for the opioid and alcohol dependence. Of the 33 participants in the IDMI group, 21 Treatment with amantadine was initiated, after the patient gave his written informed consent.
Amantadine may facilitate detoxification of cocaine addicts. Twenty-six individuals assigned to GA attended at least one meeting mean weekly attendance 1. It continues to be a widely used and well-tolerated drug in the treatment of parkinsonian movement disorders and may also slow the progression of PD Blanchet et al.
Session six included significant-other involvement, education and therapy. Gambling disorder affects 0. DA is implicated in rewarding, reinforcing, and addictive behaviors. Individuals spent a mean of